A briefing paper from Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS) outlines findings from their Poverty in Australia 2016 report and calls on the Commonwealth government to take decisive action to address child poverty by increasing income support and welfare payments for families, especially unemployed single parents. Reducing poverty leads to better health, education and employment outcomes for children, even if they have equal access to health and education. The paper states that of the three million people living in poverty, 731,000 are children, with single parent families suffering the most. Citing The Salvation Army’s 2017 survey of 1,495 children across 638 households, findings include more than half (54%) reported experiencing severe deprivation and went without five or more essential day-to-day items, including items related to education, social participation and basic nutrition. For households with children aged 17 or younger, one in five could not afford prescription medicines or medical treatment; nearly one third could not afford a yearly dental check-up for their child; half could not afford up to date school items; 56% did not have the money to participate in school activities; nearly two in five could not afford fresh fruit or vegetables every day; and nearly one in four could not afford three meals a day for their child.